A eubiotic microbiota influences many physiological processes in the metazoan host, including development and intestinal homeostasis. Here, we have shown that the intestinal microbiota modulates inflammatory responses caused by sex steroid deficiency, leading to trabecular bone loss. In murine models, sex steroid deficiency increased gut permeability, expanded Th17 cells, and upregulated the osteoclastogenic cytokines TNFα (TNF), RANKL, and IL-17 in the small intestine and the BM. In germ-free (GF) mice, sex steroid deficiency failed to increase osteoclastogenic cytokine production, stimulate bone resorption, and cause trabecular bone loss, demonstrating that the gut microbiota is central in sex steroid deficiency–induced trabecular bone loss. Furthermore, we demonstrated that twice-weekly treatment of sex steroid–deficient mice with the probiotics
Jau-Yi Li, Benoit Chassaing, Abdul Malik Tyagi, Chiara Vaccaro, Tao Luo, Jonathan Adams, Trevor M. Darby, M. Neale Weitzmann, Jennifer G. Mulle, Andrew T. Gewirtz, Rheinallt M. Jones, Roberto Pacifici
Achondroplasia (ACH) is the most frequent form of dwarfism and is caused by gain-of-function mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3–encoding (FGFR3-encoding) gene. Although potential therapeutic strategies for ACH, which aim to reduce excessive FGFR3 activation, have emerged over many years, the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) to counteract FGFR3 hyperactivity has yet to be evaluated. Here, we have reported that the pan-FGFR TKI, NVP-BGJ398, reduces FGFR3 phosphorylation and corrects the abnormal femoral growth plate and calvaria in organ cultures from embryos of the
Davide Komla-Ebri, Emilie Dambroise, Ina Kramer, Catherine Benoist-Lasselin, Nabil Kaci, Cindy Le Gall, Ludovic Martin, Patricia Busca, Florent Barbault, Diana Graus-Porta, Arnold Munnich, Michaela Kneissel, Federico Di Rocco, Martin Biosse-Duplan, Laurence Legeai-Mallet
Both the WNT/β-catenin and hedgehog signaling pathways are important in the regulation of limb development, chondrocyte differentiation, and degeneration of articular cartilage in osteoarthritis (OA). It is not clear how these signaling pathways interact in interzone cell differentiation and synovial joint morphogenesis. Here, we determined that constitutive activation of hedgehog signaling specifically within interzone cells induces joint morphological changes by selectively inhibiting β-catenin–induced
Jason S. Rockel, Chunying Yu, Heather Whetstone, April M. Craft, Katherine Reilly, Henry Ma, Hidetoshi Tsushima, Vijitha Puviindran, Mushriq Al-Jazrawe, Gordon M. Keller, Benjamin A. Alman
Fracture nonunions develop in 10%–20% of patients with fractures, resulting in prolonged disability. Current data suggest that bone union during fracture repair is achieved via proliferation and differentiation of skeletal progenitors within periosteal and soft tissues surrounding bone, while bone marrow stromal/stem cells (BMSCs) and other skeletal progenitors may also contribute. The NOTCH signaling pathway is a critical maintenance factor for BMSCs during skeletal development, although the precise role for NOTCH and the requisite nature of BMSCs following fracture is unknown. Here, we evaluated whether NOTCH and/or BMSCs are required for fracture repair by performing nonstabilized and stabilized fractures on NOTCH-deficient mice with targeted deletion of
Cuicui Wang, Jason A. Inzana, Anthony J. Mirando, Yinshi Ren, Zhaoyang Liu, Jie Shen, Regis J. O’Keefe, Hani A. Awad, Matthew J. Hilton
Paget’s disease (PD) is characterized by focal and dramatic bone resorption and formation. Treatments that target osteoclasts (OCLs) block both pagetic bone resorption and formation; therefore, PD offers key insights into mechanisms that couple bone resorption and formation. Here, we evaluated OCLs from 3 patients with PD and determined that measles virus nucleocapsid protein (MVNP) was expressed in 70% of these OCLs. Moreover, transgenic mice with OCL-specific expression of MVNP (MVNP mice) developed PD-like bone lesions that required MVNP-dependent induction of high IL-6 expression levels in OCLs. In contrast, mice harboring a knockin of p62P394L (p62-KI mice), which is the most frequent PD-associated mutation, exhibited increased bone resorption, but not formation. Evaluation of OCLs from MVNP, p62-KI, and WT mice revealed increased IGF1 expression in MVNP-expressing OCLs that resulted from the high IL-6 expression levels in these cells. IL-6, in turn, increased the expression of coupling factors, specifically ephrinB2 on OCLs and EphB4 on osteoblasts (OBs). IGF1 enhanced ephrinB2 expression on OCLs and OB differentiation. Importantly, ephrinB2 and IGF1 levels were increased in MVNP-expressing OCLs from patients with PD and MVNP-transduced human OCLs compared with levels detected in controls. Further, anti-IGF1 or anti-IGF1R blocked Runx2 and osteocalcin upregulation in OBs cocultured with MVNP-expressing OCLs. These results suggest that in PD, MVNP upregulates IL-6 and IGF1 in OCLs to increase ephrinB2-EphB4 coupling and bone formation.
Jumpei Teramachi, Yuki Nagata, Khalid Mohammad, Yuji Inagaki, Yasuhisa Ohata, Theresa Guise, Laëtitia Michou, Jacques P. Brown, Jolene J. Windle, Noriyoshi Kurihara, G. David Roodman
Osteoblast-derived VEGF is important for bone development and postnatal bone homeostasis. Previous studies have demonstrated that VEGF affects bone repair and regeneration; however, the cellular mechanisms by which it works are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the functions of osteoblast-derived VEGF in healing of a bone defect. The results indicate that osteoblast-derived VEGF plays critical roles at several stages in the repair process. Using transgenic mice with osteoblast-specific deletion of
Kai Hu, Bjorn R. Olsen
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent and debilitating joint disease, and there are currently no effective disease-modifying treatments available. Multiple risk factors for OA, such as aging, result in progressive damage and loss of articular cartilage. Autonomous circadian clocks have been identified in mouse cartilage, and environmental disruption of circadian rhythms in mice predisposes animals to OA-like damage. However, the contribution of the cartilage clock mechanisms to the maintenance of tissue homeostasis is still unclear. Here, we have shown that expression of the core clock transcription factor BMAL1 is disrupted in human OA cartilage and in aged mouse cartilage. Furthermore, targeted
Michal Dudek, Nicole Gossan, Nan Yang, Hee-Jeong Im, Jayalath P.D. Ruckshanthi, Hikari Yoshitane, Xin Li, Ding Jin, Ping Wang, Maya Boudiffa, Ilaria Bellantuono, Yoshitaka Fukada, Ray P. Boot-Handford, Qing-Jun Meng
Bone formation during fracture repair inevitably initiates within or around extravascular deposits of a fibrin-rich matrix. In addition to a central role in hemostasis, fibrin is thought to enhance bone repair by supporting inflammatory and mesenchymal progenitor egress into the zone of injury. However, given that a failure of efficient fibrin clearance can impede normal wound repair, the precise contribution of fibrin to bone fracture repair, whether supportive or detrimental, is unknown. Here, we employed mice with genetically and pharmacologically imposed deficits in the fibrin precursor fibrinogen and fibrin-degrading plasminogen to explore the hypothesis that fibrin is vital to the initiation of fracture repair, but impaired fibrin clearance results in derangements in bone fracture repair. In contrast to our hypothesis, fibrin was entirely dispensable for long-bone fracture repair, as healing fractures in fibrinogen-deficient mice were indistinguishable from those in control animals. However, failure to clear fibrin from the fracture site in plasminogen-deficient mice severely impaired fracture vascularization, precluded bone union, and resulted in robust heterotopic ossification. Pharmacological fibrinogen depletion in plasminogen-deficient animals restored a normal pattern of fracture repair and substantially limited heterotopic ossification. Fibrin is therefore not essential for fracture repair, but inefficient fibrinolysis decreases endochondral angiogenesis and ossification, thereby inhibiting fracture repair.
Masato Yuasa, Nicholas A. Mignemi, Jeffry S. Nyman, Craig L. Duvall, Herbert S. Schwartz, Atsushi Okawa, Toshitaka Yoshii, Gourab Bhattacharjee, Chenguang Zhao, Jesse E. Bible, William T. Obremskey, Matthew J. Flick, Jay L. Degen, Joey V. Barnett, Justin M.M. Cates, Jonathan G. Schoenecker
The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a cellular adaptive mechanism that is activated in response to the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. The inositol-requiring protein-1α/X-box–binding protein–mediated (IRE1α/XBP1-mediated) branch of the UPR is highly conserved and has also been shown to regulate various cell-fate decisions. Herein, we have demonstrated a crucial role for the IREα/XBP1-mediated arm of the UPR in osteoclast differentiation. Using murine models, we found that the conditional abrogation of IRE1α in bone marrow cells increases bone mass as the result of defective osteoclastic bone resorption. In osteoclast precursors, IRE1α was transiently activated during osteoclastogenesis, and suppression of the IRE1α/XBP1 pathway in these cells substantially inhibited the formation of multinucleated osteoclasts in vitro. We determined that XBP1 directly binds the promoter and induces transcription of the gene encoding the master regulator of osteoclastogenesis nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1). Moreover, activation of IRE1α was partially dependent on Ca2+ oscillation mediated by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors 2 and 3 (ITPR2 and ITPR3) in the endoplasmic reticulum, as pharmacological inhibition or deletion of these receptors markedly decreased
Takahide Tohmonda, Masaki Yoda, Takao Iwawaki, Morio Matsumoto, Masaya Nakamura, Katsuhiko Mikoshiba, Yoshiaki Toyama, Keisuke Horiuchi
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) exhibit an age-dependent reduction in osteogenesis that is accompanied by an increased propensity toward adipocyte differentiation. This switch increases adipocyte numbers and decreases the number of osteoblasts, contributing to age-related bone loss. Here, we found that the level of microRNA-188 (miR-188) is markedly higher in BMSCs from aged compared with young mice and humans. Compared with control mice, animals lacking miR-188 showed a substantial reduction of age-associated bone loss and fat accumulation in bone marrow. Conversely, mice with transgenic overexpression of miR-188 in osterix+ osteoprogenitors had greater age-associated bone loss and fat accumulation in bone marrow relative to WT mice. Moreover, using an aptamer delivery system, we found that BMSC-specific overexpression of miR-188 in mice reduced bone formation and increased bone marrow fat accumulation. We identified histone deacetylase 9 (HDAC9) and RPTOR-independent companion of MTOR complex 2 (RICTOR) as the direct targets of miR-188. Notably, BMSC-specific inhibition of miR-188 by intra–bone marrow injection of aptamer-antagomiR-188 increased bone formation and decreased bone marrow fat accumulation in aged mice. Together, our results indicate that miR-188 is a key regulator of the age-related switch between osteogenesis and adipogenesis of BMSCs and may represent a potential therapeutic target for age-related bone loss.
Chang-Jun Li, Peng Cheng, Meng-Ke Liang, Yu-Si Chen, Qiong Lu, Jin-Yu Wang, Zhu-Ying Xia, Hou-De Zhou, Xu Cao, Hui Xie, Er-Yuan Liao, Xiang-Hang Luo