Different T cell lines, which can be induced to secrete interleukin 2 (IL-2) in vitro, were used to dissect the effect of cyclosporin A (CsA). The T leukemia cell Jurkat requires an increase in cytoplasmic calcium concentration ([Ca++]i) and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) for the induction of IL-2 production, which is completely blocked by CsA. Another T cell line, HUT 78, also produces IL-2 in response to a rise in [Ca++]i and PMA; however, in HUT 78, PMA alone induces low levels of IL-2 production that is not blocked by CsA. After treatment with 5-azacytidine, HUT 78 cells produced maximal levels of IL-2 in response to PMA alone without requiring [Ca++]i increasing stimuli. In these cells no inhibitory effect of CsA on PMA-induced activation could be demonstrated. In addition, CsA does not inhibit PMA-induced translocation of protein kinase C. These data suggest that CsA does not globally inhibit IL-2 gene expression, but rather interferes with signaling events of T cell activation.
B Manger, K J Hardy, A Weiss, J D Stobo
Because treatment with lithium salts may impair renal concentrating ability, we investigated the possibility of a direct effect of lithium ions on the permeability to water of the collecting duct epithelium. The coefficient of hydraulic conductivity (Lp) of isolated perfused rabbit cortical collecting tubules (CCT) was measured in the presence and absence of arginine-8-vasopressin (AVP), or 8-bromo (Br) cyclic AMP (cAMP) and/or lithium chloride (Li 10 mM). In the absence of AVP, Li in the lumen for 30 min failed to affect basal water permeability; however, in tubules preincubated with Li in the lumen for 80 min, basal water permeability was reduced to 30% of the value found in control tubules (P less than 0.01). In CCT incubated at 25 degrees C with Li in the lumen for 3 h, the hydroosmotic response to 2.5 microU X ml-1 AVP (Lp = 6.88 +/- 1.54 nl X cm-2 X s-1 X atm-1) was significantly lower than that in the control tubules (13.98 +/- 1.59, P less than 0.01); the inhibition was not reversible. When Li was present in the peritubular medium only, the hydroosmotic effect of AVP was not different from that of the controls. The hydroosmotic effect of 25 microU/ml AVP was investigated at 37 degrees C. CCT exposed to Li in the lumen had a 49% inhibition of peak Lp under AVP (Lp = 10.98 +/- 1.17) as compared with control tubules (Lp = 21.39 +/- 1.51; P less than 0.005). In contrast, the hydroosmotic response to 8-Br-cAMP was not affected by lithium. The results are compatible with the view that Li inhibits the action of AVP at the level of the regulating protein or the catalytic unit of the membrane adenylate cyclase and that the site of the interaction can be reached by lithium only from the cytoplasmic side. The Li-antidiuretic hormone (ADH) interaction found here may represent the earliest pathophysiological event underlying the renal concentrating defect observed after Li administration.
E Cogan, M Abramow
To study the effects of alveolar hypoxia on canine bronchopulmonary shunt flow, a biventricular bypass preparation was employed. The preparation allowed a constant and sensitive measure of changes in pulmonary venous blood flow. In 16 of 18 dogs with intact bronchial arteries, alveolar hypoxia caused an increase in pulmonary venous return both under conditions of constant pulmonary arterial inflow and under conditions of no pulmonary arterial inflow, suggesting bronchopulmonary shunting. This effect was accompanied by systemic vasodilation despite vagotomy and ganglionic blockade, and was abolished by division of all bronchial vessels. Ibuprofen, 3 mg/kg, and indomethacin, 15 mg/kg, in dogs with intact bronchial vessels, abolished both the increase in pulmonary venous return and the systemic vasodilatation caused by hypoxia. Thus, alveolar hypoxia directly augments bronchopulmonary flow, most likely through release of one or more vasodilating prostaglandins.
R L Warren, W J Powell Jr
Patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) have both preprandial and postprandial hyperglycemia. To determine the mechanism responsible for the postprandial hyperglycemia, insulin secretion, insulin action, and the pattern of carbohydrate metabolism after glucose ingestion were assessed in patients with NIDDM and in matched nondiabetic subjects using the dual isotope and forearm catheterization techniques. Prior to meal ingestion, hepatic glucose release was increased (P less than 0.001) in the diabetic patients measured using [2-3H] or [3-3H] glucose. After meal ingestion, patients with NIDDM had excessive rates of systemic glucose entry (1,316 +/- 56 vs. 1,018 +/- 65 mg/kg X 7 h, P less than 0.01), primarily owing to a failure to suppress adequately endogenous glucose release (680 +/- 50 vs. 470 +/- 32 mg/kg X 7 h, P less than 0.01) from its high preprandial level. Despite impaired suppression of endogenous glucose production during a hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp (P less than 0.001) and decreased postprandial C-peptide response (P less than 0.05) in NIDDM, percent suppression of hepatic glucose release after oral glucose was comparable in the diabetic and nondiabetic subjects (45 +/- 3 vs. 39 +/- 2%). Although new glucose formation from meal-derived three-carbon precursors (53 +/- 3 vs. 40 +/- 7 mg/kg X 7 h, P less than 0.05) was greater in the diabetic patients, it accounted for only a minor part of this excessive postprandial hepatic glucose release. Postprandial hyperglycemia was exacerbated by the lack of an appropriate increase in glucose uptake whether measured isotopically or by forearm glucose uptake. Thus as has been proposed for fasting hyperglycemia, excessive hepatic glucose release and impaired glucose uptake are involved in the pathogenesis of postprandial hyperglycemia in patients with NIDDM.
R G Firth, P M Bell, H M Marsh, I Hansen, R A Rizza
Lipoteichoic acids (LTA) released by gram-positive bacteria can spontaneously bind to mammalian cell surfaces. In the present study, erythrocytes (E) sensitized with pneumococcal LTA (LTA-E) were used as a model system to determine if LTA could render host cells susceptible to damage by autologous complement. Complement (C)-mediated lysis of LTA-E from normal rats and normal humans occurred when these cells were incubated in their respective autologous sera in vitro. In addition, when LTA-E from a C2-deficient human and from C4-deficient guinea pigs were incubated in their autologous sera, there was significant lysis in vitro, demonstrating a role for the alternative pathway. The in vivo survival of 51Cr-labeled autologous LTA-E was also studied. Only 2.9% of autologous LTA-E remained in the circulation of normal rats after 90 min. In contrast, 31.2% of autologous LTA-E remained in the circulation of rats depleted of C3. Intravascular hemolysis accounted for the clearance of LTA-E in the normal rats, whereas liver sequestration was responsible for clearance in the C3-depleted rats. These results demonstrate that LTA can render the host's cells susceptible to damage by its own complement system, establishing this as a possible mechanism of tissue damage in natural bacterial infections.
D S Hummell, J A Winkelstein
A monoclonal antibody, selected for reactivity with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded antigen EBNA-1, exhibited strong reactivity with the synovial lining cells in joint biopsies from 10 of 12 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and adherent cells eluted from these tissues. No staining of RA synovial membrane frozen tissue sections or eluted synovial-lining cells was obtained with monoclonal antibodies directed against other EBV-encoded antigens (anti-p160, anti-gp200/350) or with monoclonal antibodies directed against antigens encoded by cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex viruses, or human T cell leukemia virus type I. Among 12 osteoarthritis and normal synovial biopsies only rare reactive cells were noted. Characterization of the antigen(s) in RA synovium by the Western immunoblotting technique revealed a 62,000-molecular-weight (mol-wt) protein, in contrast to the 70,000-85,000-mol-wt EBNA-1 antigen found in EBV-transformed cells. The structural basis for the cross-reactivity of the RA synovial membrane 62,000-mol-wt protein and the EBNA-1 antigen appears to reside in the glycine-alanine rich region of these molecules. A rabbit antibody directed against a synthetic peptide (IR3-VI-2) derived from the glycine-alanine-rich region of EBNA-1 reacted with the 70,000-85,000-mol-wt EBNA-1 antigen in EBV-infected cells and with the 62,000-mol-wt molecule in RA synovial membrane extracts. Since strong antibody responses to EBNA-1 are known to exist in RA patients, these results suggest that immune responses to a cross-reactive antigen may play a role in the pathogenesis of RA.
R Fox, R Sportsman, G Rhodes, J Luka, G Pearson, J Vaughan
We studied somatomedin-C/insulinlike growth factor (Sm-C/IGF-I) binding to human fibroblasts in both adherent monolayers and in suspension cultures. The addition of Sm-C/IGF-I in concentrations between 0.5 and 10 ng/ml to monolayers cultures resulted in a paradoxical increase in 125I-Sm-C/IGF-I binding and concentrations between 25 and 300 ng/ml were required to displace the labeled peptide. The addition of unlabeled insulin resulted in no displacement of labeled Sm-C/IGF-I from the adherent cells. When fibroblast suspensions were used Sm-C/IGF-I concentrations between 1 and 10 ng/ml caused displacement, the paradoxical increase in 125I-Sm-C/IGF-I binding was not detected, and insulin displaced 60% of the labeled peptide. Affinity cross-linking to fibroblast monolayers revealed a 43,000-mol wt 125I-Sm-C-binding-protein complex that was not detected after cross-linking to suspended cells. The 43,000-mol wt complex was not detected after cross-linking to smooth muscle cell monolayers, and binding studies showed that 125I-Sm-C/IGF-I was displaced greater than 90% by Sm-C/IGF-I using concentrations between 0.5 and 10 ng/ml. Because fibroblast-conditioned medium contains the 43,000-mol wt complex, smooth muscle cells were incubated with conditioned medium for 24 h prior to initiation of the binding studies. 125I-Sm-C/IGF-I-binding increased 1.6-fold compared to control cultures and after cross-linking the 43,000-mol wt complex could be detected on the smooth muscle cell surface. Human fibroblast monolayers secrete a protein that binds 125I-Sm-C/IGF-I which can be transferred to the smooth muscle cell surface and alters 125I-Sm-C/IGF-I binding.
D R Clemmons, R G Elgin, V K Han, S J Casella, A J D'Ercole, J J Van Wyk
Human T lymphocytes sensitized to Candida albicans (CA) were shown to proliferate in cultures induced with mannan, a ramified polysaccharide extracted from the cell well of CA. We presently describe that, when we used strongly labeled [3H]mannan, antigen-specific T blast cells were able to bind the labeled mannan on their membrane. The observations that irrelevant blast cells did not bind [3H]mannan, and that mannan-specific blast cells did not bind tritiated pneumococcal polysaccharide SIII, indicate the specificity of mannan binding. Mannan binding was reversible and saturable. Mannan binding on T blast cells was inhibited by preincubation with monoclonal antibodies to T3 but not to other T cell-related molecules. The characteristics of this receptor suggest its identity with the T cell receptor for antigen. The direct binding of mannan could be either due to a cross-linking of the receptor by multivalent mannan or to a recognition of mannan in association with HLA-DQ molecules, as suggested by partial blocking of mannan binding using anti-HLA-DQ monoclonal antibodies.
A Durandy, A Fischer, D Charron, C Griscelli
Recent studies from our laboratory indicate that a high concentration of platelet-derived calcium-activated cysteine protease (calpain) can cleave high molecular weight kininogen (HMWK). On immunodiffusion and immunoblot, antiserum directed to the heavy chain of HMWK showed immunochemical identity with alpha-cysteine protease inhibitor--a major plasma inhibitor of tissue calpains. Studies were then initiated to determine whether purified or plasma HMWK was also an inhibitor of platelet calpain. Purified alpha-cysteine protease inhibitor, alpha-2-macroglobulin, as well as purified heavy chain of HMWK or HMWK itself inhibited purified platelet calpain. Kinetic analysis revealed that HMWK inhibited platelet calpain noncompetitively (Ki approximately equal to 5 nM). Incubation of platelet calpain with HMWK, alpha-2-macroglobulin, purified heavy chain of HMWK, or purified alpha-cysteine protease inhibitor under similar conditions resulted in an IC50 of 36, 500, 700, and 1,700 nM, respectively. The contribution of these proteins in plasma towards the inhibition of platelet calpain was investigated next. Normal plasma contained a protein that conferred a five to sixfold greater IC50 of purified platelet calpain than plasma deficient in either HMWK or total kininogen. Reconstitution of total kininogen deficient plasma with purified HMWK to normal levels (0.67 microM) completely corrected the subnormal inhibitory activity. However, reconstitution of HMWK deficient plasma to normal levels of low molecular weight kininogen (2.4 microM) did not fully correct the subnormal calpain inhibitory capacity of this plasma. These studies indicate that HMWK is a potent inhibitor as well as a substrate of platelet calpain and that the plasma and cellular kininogens may function as regulators of cytosolic, calcium-activated cysteine proteases.
A H Schmaier, H Bradford, L D Silver, A Farber, C F Scott, D Schutsky, R W Colman
We explored the effects of alterations in extracellular and intracellular calcium concentration on arginine vasopressin (AVP)-stimulated cAMP formation in cultured rat inner medullary collecting tubule cells. cAMP formation remains constant at extracellular calcium concentrations between 0.5 and 4.0 mM, which did not change intracellular calcium. Maneuvers that alter intracellular calcium concentration are associated with marked changes in cAMP generation. EGTA decreases intracellular calcium and enhances AVP-stimulated cAMP formation, while increasing cellular calcium with 2 microM A23187 decreases AVP-stimulated cAMP formation in the presence, but not in the absence, of extracellular calcium. The changes in cAMP formation observed when intracellular calcium is altered are associated with reciprocal changes in prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis. Despite greater than 95% inhibition of PGE2 synthesis with 5 microM meclofenamic acid, the changes in cAMP formation accompanying alterations in intracellular calcium concentration are still evident. These studies suggest that intracellular calcium critically influences AVP-stimulated cAMP formation. It does so by a mechanism independent of PG that is probably mediated by a direct effect of the cation on the adenylate cyclase complex.
I Teitelbaum, T Berl